Articles and Publications

International peer reviewed publication 

Catalyzing Urban and Rural Female Entrepreneurial Success through HRM Practices and Digital Technology Use: Insights from Lebanon

Abstract: This study investigates the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices and digital technology use (DTU) on women’s perceived venture growth. Further, it explores the mediating role of perceived venture growth and whether this factor contributes to the improvement of female entrepreneurs’ economic conditions. The analysis also assesses differences between urban and rural areas. Using a sample of 100 female entrepreneurs in Lebanon, the results indicate that HRM practices and DTU exert a positive, significant effect on female entrepreneurs’ perceived venture growth. The latter also has a positive influence on the economic conditions of these women and acts as a mediator in these relationships. The findings differ between urban and rural areas. For female entrepreneurs in urban areas, perceived venture growth is shown to mediate the relationship between DTU and women’s economic conditions while it mediates the relationship between HRM practices and women’s economic conditions for female entrepreneurs in rural areas. The findings emphasize the collectivistic nature of rural female entrepreneurs, underscoring their reliance on strategic people management for business growth. It also advocates for promoting digital literacy among rural female entrepreneurs to help them grow and expand their businesses.

Catalyzing Urban and Rural Female Entrepreneurial Success Through Hrm Practices and Digital Technology Use: Insights from Lebanon Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship: 2350026, January 2024. 

DOI: 10.1142/S1084946723500267

Keywords: Female entrepreneurship; venture growth; human resource management; digital technology use; economic conditions; regional multigroup analysis;

Edible Insects: Perceptions of Marketing, Economic, and Social Aspects among Citizens of Different Countries

Abstract: Because edible insects (EI) have been, in recent years, recommended as a nutritious animal protein food with enormous environmental advantages over other sources of animal protein for human consumption, studies aimed at investigating the consumer perspective have become more prominent. Hence, this study intended to examine the perceptions of participants from different countries about the commercialization and economic and social impacts of edible insects. The study was made using a questionnaire survey, and data were collected in Brazil, Croatia, Greece, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey. The final number of received answers was 7222 participants. For the treatment of the results, different statistical techniques were used: factor analysis, internal reliability by Cronbach’s alpha, cluster analysis, ANOVA to test differences between groups, and Chi-square tests. The results obtained confirmed the validity of the scale, constituted by 12 out of the 14 items initially considered, distributed by 4 factors: the first related to the economic impact of EIs, the second related to the motivation for consumption of EIs, the third related to the places of purchase of EIs, and the fourth corresponding to a question presented to the participants as a false statement. A cluster analysis allowed identifying three clusters, with significant differences between them according to all the sociodemographic variables tested. Also, it was found that the participants expressed an exceptionally high level of agreement with aspects such as the difficulty in finding EIs on sale, knowledge acting as a strong motivator for EI consumption, and the role of personalities and influencers in increasing the will to consume EIs. Finally, practically all sociodemographic variables were found to be significantly associated with perceptions (country, sex, education, living environment, and income), but not age. In conclusion, the perceptions about EI commercialization were investigated and revealed differences among samples originating from different countries. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants were found to be strongly associated with their perceptions.

Edible Insects: Perceptions of Marketing, Economic, and Social Aspects among Citizens of Different Countries Foods, 2023, 12(23), November 2023. 

DOI: 10.3390/foods12234229

Keywords: insect consumption; economy; social impact; questionnaire survey; marketing

The Lebanese Entrepreneurial Resilience In Times Of Crisis

Abstract: Entrepreneurship is thriving throughout the world. And while the nature and processes of economic activity and development vary widely across countries, there is widespread acknowledgement that entrepreneurship, defined as “any attempt at new venture or new business creation by an individual, a team of individuals, or an established business” (Reynolds et al. 1999) is an essential ingredient in the economic development mix (Kim-Soon et al. 2016). Entrepreneurship has time and again been shown to increase the economic development of a country, enhance job creation, alleviate poverty, and positively contribute to innovation (Romer 1994).

In terms of societal development, employment and economic growth, entrepreneurship is crucial ( Shane and Venkataraman 2000). To solve societal and environmental problems including poverty, hunger, and global warming, entrepreneurship has recently been suggested to play a key role (Dean and McMullen 2007; PPorter and Kramer 2011). One of the many types of entrepreneurships that has appeared to address these problems is social (Mair and Martí 2006), sustainable (Cohen and Winn 2007), and environmental (Keogh and Polonsky 1998) entrepreneurship. The goal to become an entrepreneur and underlying motivations have consequently attracted scholarly research.

What could be the context of Lebanese entrepreneurial system and contrasts that abound in Lebanon? According to Forbes, Lebanon had at least seven billionaires in the United States in 2018. According to the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan 2017–20, 106,000 Lebanese households make less than $120 per month, or $3.84 per day (www.data2.unhcr.org). Individual choices regarding whether to launch a business are framed by the Lebanese economy. A developing economy broadens consumer and commercial markets, improves access to financing, offers new business prospects, and boosts confidence to take advantage of those opportunities, which could either impede or promote the start-up. In contrast, a slowing or deteriorating economy may restrict both opportunity and confidence. However, because there aren't many other ways to make money in that weak economy, more people may decide to start their own businesses most likely in the highly competitive and simple-to-enter consumer services or retail industries.

Innovative entrepreneurial vigor has been shown to greatly increase economic resilience by improving the industrial structure, reducing the income gap, and directing economic agglomeration in the face of unpredictable economic policy (Wang et al. 2021). Additionally, there were notable regional and economic heterogeneities in the effects of creative entrepreneurial vigor and economic policy uncertainty on economic resilience.

This study explores the following research questions: What impact does innovative entrepreneurial actions and initiatives have on economic resilience and what is the role of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in resorbing the Lebanese economic crisis?

To examine these issues, the researchers intend to first propose a theoretical framework, and review the existing literature. Second, to present the hypotheses of entrepreneurial actions in Lebanon. Third, to discuss the research methodology and questionnaire used. Fourth, the results are reported. Fifth, the key findings are discussed, practical and theoretical implications are presented and avenues for future research are shown.

To demonstrate the research hypotheses, the authors will adopt a mixed methodology, a triangulation between quantitative and qualitative. A questionnaire will be sent to entrepreneurs who have already founded their business before the crisis and those who tried to create their business during the crisis. Usually, entrepreneurs who perceive opportunity and establish new organizations to benefit from opportunity (Shane and Venkataraman 2000) are viewed as agents of change who disrupt markets and build the future. To understand this attitude, Interviews are scheduled to study how these entrepreneurs have been able to resist the crisis (based on entrepreneurship resilience theory) and how new entrepreneurs have been able to create businesses despite all the difficulty of this unprecedented crisis in Lebanon and even at the international level (based on entrepreneurship innovation theory). The target audience will be entrepreneurs who have been trained by the existing entrepreneurial ecosystem in Lebanon.

The entrepreneurial ecosystem can have a significant impact by aiding in the nation's rehabilitation. Infrastructure and public support are necessary for the government to carry out its protection from the economic crisis in a successful manner (Comfort 2002). In addition to the issue of crisis management in the business world the presence of the state is crucial for overcoming the crisis, and this has emerged as one of the research trends during a crisis (Doern et al. 2019). The research would address some potential ways that the entrepreneurial ecosystem could contribute include:

Investing in the economy: Private companies can help stimulate economic growth and create jobs by investing in the economy (Saleh and Levy-Tadjine 2023). This could include investing in new ventures or expanding existing businesses.

Supporting economic reforms: The entrepreneurial ecosystem can support economic reforms by adopting good business practices and operating transparently (Mallah Boustani and El Boustani 2017) . This can help to create a more stable and predictable business environment, which can attract investment and support economic growth.

Partnering with the government: The entrepreneurial ecosystem can work with the government to identify and implement solutions to address the economic crisis (Nsouli 2022). This could include participating in public-private partnerships or collaborating on initiatives to stimulate economic growth.

Providing job opportunities: Entrepreneurship can be an alternative to employment and can help to alleviate unemployment and improve the lives of ordinary citizens by providing job opportunities. This could include hiring local workers, providing training and development opportunities, and offering fair and competitive wages.

The Lebanese Entrepreneurial Resilience In Times Of Crisis ARPHA Conference Abstracts 6: e107045, June 2023. 

DOI: 10.3897/aca.6.e107045

Keywords: Lebanon, entrepreneurship, start-ups, growth.

Youth Adoption of Innovative Digital Marketing and Cross-Cultural Disparities

Abstract: This paper aims to explore Youth’s attitudes towards digital marketing utility perception and its effect on behavioral patterns in a cross-cultural perspective. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT 2) model was adopted together with three new variables from the reasoned action theory and the 5S Internet marketing model to propose a theoretical model on Youth’s digital marketing adoption. A survey was conducted in Italy (N = 165) and Lebanon (N = 150), and PLS analysis was implemented for the empirical testing of the proposed research model. In the Italian sample, Hedonic motivation, social influence, facilitating conditions, and efficiency significantly predicted the behavioral intention of digital marketing which, in turn, was significantly related to use behavior. Subsequently, in the Lebanese sample, the subjective norms of hedonic motivation, social influence, experience and habit predicted behavioral intention, which was positively related with use behavior. The results led to the conclusion that national cultures still play an important role in affecting digital marketing adoption among younger generations, especially in less industrialized and technologically developed countries. Therefore, companies should keep this aspect in mind when innovating and developing digital marketing strategies targeting this generation.

Youth Adoption of Innovative Digital Marketing and Cross-Cultural Disparities Administrative Sciences, 13: 151, June 2023. 

DOI: 10.3390/admsci13060151

Keywords: digital marketing; culture; behavior; youth; technology.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Curriculum and Employability in Lebanon

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacting the whole service sector, including higher education, has forced universities to quickly innovate and recreate. The sanitary crisis resulted in the greatest disruption to educational systems in human history, as well as a shift in the nature, qualifications, and mix of the workforce. The reopening of higher education institutions is another concern, with numerous new operational procedures in place, new opportunities, and prospective curriculum adjustments based on labour market realities. Due to the development of technology, businesses’ requirements for human resource credentials and job types underwent several modifications. This study’s goal is to investigate how COVID-19 has influenced curriculum revisions and employability requirements. The research used a mixed methodology, with quantitative analysis of changes in enrolled students by major and a qualitative study including two different sets of surveys based on the innovation and employability theories addressed to five human resource (HR) directors from institutions and organizations in Lebanon, as well as three universities. The objective was to answer the following questions: How can universities adapt to the changing demands of the labour market specifically in times of crisis? Should university curricula place greater emphasis on students’ personal growth than on technical and conventional learning? The results lead to re-thinking about what higher education systems and institutions can do to redesign their curricula in accordance with the job market and the expectations of the students in this challenging context, where employment security and job market stability issues are more urgent due to the economic crisis and advanced technologies. According to the findings, the research implications include boosting the implementation of the new curriculum through improved HR practices from the Ministry of Education. This will also encourage innovative performance, which will necessitate realistic, swift technical procedures to be unbeatable, creative, and competitive. This study adds significantly to the literature by suggesting curriculum adjustments for online courses and e-training.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Curriculum and Employability in Lebanon Administrative Sciences, 13: 128, May 2023. 

DOI: 10.3390/admsci13050128

Keywords: innovation theory; education theory; employability; curriculum; skills and job market.

The Impact of Social Commercial Platforms on Entrepreneurship in a Developing Country

Abstract: The development of electronic commerce has led to the emergence of social commerce combining commercial and social activities by using web 2.0 and increasing the social presence of online environment. This study is proposing a set of variables related to the social aspect of social commerce platform and its impact on customer purchase behavior to enhance entrepreneurship. Toward this end, a survey is distributed to 289 Lebanese social commerce platform shoppers. The findings indicate that social presence, social value, loyalty and satisfaction have a positive impact to enhance purchase from SCP and increase sales. Our findings suggest that gender differences are significant when it is about purchase frequency and types of products.

The Impact of Social Commercial Platforms on Entrepreneurship in a Developing Country, In: Dal Zotto, C., Omidi, A., Aoun, G. (eds) Smart Technologies for Organizations. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation, vol 60. Springer, Cham, Apr. 2023. (Scopus Indexed).

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-24775-0_5

Keywords: Social commerce platform, Entrepreneurship, Social presence, Social value, Satisfaction, Loyalty

Food determinants and motivation factors impact on consumer behavior in Lebanon

Abstract: The current study looks at a variety of factors that affect eating patterns. This is about internal and external aspects that lead to a thorough assessment of consumer behavior, with an emphasis on driving forces and obstacles that significantly affect each consumer’s food preferences. The information is based on questionnaire research of traditional and fiber food consumption as well as specific consumer purchasing behaviors. The results of the questionnaire survey were analyzed using qualitative aspects analysis and other statistical methods (ANOVA, t-test). The study’s goal is to provide comprehensive strategies that encourage and support the intake of nutritious meals, especially in light of how different food motivations and knowledge factors influence Lebanese consumer behavior. Based on the findings, individual eating motivation and its impact on consumers’ behavior in Lebanon when making food purchase decisions were found. Sources of potential influences include information, the social environment, and environmental variables. Processes like social learning influence the interplay between these components as well as food choices and eating habits. As a result, future programs to encourage healthy eating habits might profit by putting more of an emphasis on learning principles and food preferences when programs are implemented.

Food determinants and motivation factors impact on consumer behavior in Lebanon, Open Agriculture Journal,  De Gruyter, Mar. 2023. (Scopus Indexed).

DOI: 10.1515/opag-2022-0176

Keywords: food information, sociodemographic differences, Lebanese consumers, ANOVA

ESG Investing in “White Gold”: The Case of Lebanese Salinas

Abstract: Lebanese sea salt is historically known as “white gold”. Traditional coastal sea salt production now survives mainly in the coastal city of Anfeh, and is facing various constraints due to regulations, as well as environmental threats which affect the quality of the sea salt. This research points out the case of Lebanese Salinas that invested in ESG to improve the salt quality through social implications and diverse environmental techniques. Based on ESG investments and innovation theory, the main objectives of this research action project were to: create a plastic-free area and implement plastic-free sea salt production at 10 Salinas, using a local innovative tool to filter sea water that consists of a windmill, pump, metallic tube, and filter, which is placed on the main basin of a Salina to prevent the leakage of microplastics into the water used in sea salt extraction, to obtain a plastic-free sea salt. This would create a sustainable, ecofriendly process via the sorting of plastics at the source, clean-up activities, awareness activities, and incentive activities, resulting in the production of better sea salt and the promotion of local products and coastal tourism. The goal of the study was to implement methods that were recommended in the “S.O.S. (Save our Salt)” initiative, which was put into place by the Green Community NGO to protect Lebanese sea salt production and guarantee a reduction in the amount of these microparticles in sea salt. Data gathered from the project, as well as from in-person interviews and follow-ups with the project team, were used to conduct the empirical analysis. The amount of plastic that was present was reduced, resulting in one of the best sea salts in the area. Findings aligned with ESG investment for an increasing and sustainable firm performance and have several practical implications for many stakeholders, both internally and externally, including managers, investors, lenders, policymakers, government, and the public. Our results highlight the significance of formulating regulations for Lebanese Salinas to collectively handle production risks and enhance technical efficacy, and for regulators to lessen marine pollution.

ESG Investing in “White Gold”: The Case of Lebanese Salinas Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 16 (3), 147, Feb 2023. 

DOI: 10.3390/jrfm16030147

Keywords: sea salt; sustainability; plastic-free; innovation; environment; salinas.

Validation of the Scale Knowledge and Perceptions about Edible Insects through Structural Equation Modeling

Abstract: Edible insects have been suggested as a more sustainable source of protein, but their consumption varies according to geographical and sociocultural influences. Focusing on the different aspects that can influence people’s attitudes towards edible insects (EI), this work aimed to carry out the statistical validation of an instrument aimed at assessing different dimensions of this field: the KPEI (knowledge and perceptions about EI) scale. The instrument consists of 64 questions distributed by the following dimensions: Culture and Tradition, Gastronomic Innovation and Gourmet Kitchen, Environment and Sustainability, Economic and Social Aspects, Commercialization and Marketing, Nutritional Characteristics, and Health Effects. The data were collected in 13 countries (Croatia, Greece, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey). The validation of the KPEI scale was made through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results revealed two acceptable models, both retaining 37 of the 64 initial items, distrusted by the seven dimensions as: Culture and Tradition (5 items), Gastronomic Innovation and Gourmet Kitchen (5 items), Environment and Sustainability (8 items), Economic and Social Aspects (5 items), Commercialisation and Marketing (4 items), Nutritional Aspects (6 items), Health Effects (4 items). Both multifactorial models resulting from the CFA/SEM analyses showed approximately equal goodness of statistical fit indices with values of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Root Mean Square Residual (RMR), and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) partially zero and values of Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) approximately one, i.e., very close to a perfect fit. For the first-order model, the ratio between chi-square and degrees of freedom is χ2/df = 13.734, GFI = 0.932, CFI = 0.930, RMSEA = 0.043, RMR = 0.042, SRMR = 0.042; and for the second-order model χ2/df = 14.697, GFI = 0.926, CFI = 0.923, RMSEA = 0.045, RMR = 0.047, SRMR = 0.046). The values of composite reliability (CR = 0.967) and mean extracted variance (MEV = 0.448) are indicative of a good fit. Finally, the reliability analysis indicated a very good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.941). These results confirm the successful validation of the KPEI scale, making it a valuable instrument for future application at the international level.

Validation of the Scale Knowledge and Perceptions about Edible Insects through Stuctural Equation Modeling Sustainability, no. 4 (2023): 2992, February 2023.

DOI: 10.3390/su15042992

Keywords: statistical validation; confirmatory factor analysis; structural equation modeling; scale

Digital Explosion and Entrepreneurship Education: Impact on Promoting Entrepreneurial Intention for Business Students

Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of entrepreneurship education and artificial intelligence (AI) development on entrepreneurial intentions while investigating the mediating role of perceived behavioral control. The proposed model also accounts for individual and contextual socioeconomic factors. This study tries to fill the gap in the entrepreneurship literature, which is still lacking with respect to the impact of new technologies on entrepreneurship intentions and shows conflicting results regarding the influence of entrepreneurship education. Our study surveyed 223 business students in Lebanon. The context of this study is of high importance, particularly since the country is currently facing a deep, multifaced political, economic, and financial crisis, and entrepreneurship might be considered an important channel for generating basic sources of income, steering the recovery process, and increasing Lebanese resilience against this highly unstable economy. The structural equation modeling technique (SEM) was conducted to validate the hypotheses. The results show that perceived behavioral control fully mediates the relations between performance expectancy of AI solutions, entrepreneurship education, and entrepreneurial intention. Risk aversion and social support exert a direct impact on entrepreneurial intentions. The findings highlight the need to account for entrepreneurship education and AI development when analyzing entrepreneurial intentions.

Digital Explosion and Entrepreneurship Education: Impact on Promoting Entrepreneurial Intention for Business Students Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 16, 27, January 2023. 

DOI: 10.3390/jrfm16010027

Keywords: artificial intelligence, entrepreneurship education, risk aversion, entrepreneurial intentions, mediation.

Les déplacés syriens et leur inclusion dans le système éducatif libanais

Abstract: Les facteurs de déstabilisation au Liban ne se font pas rares, et l’ampleur des flux de déplacés syriens en est un de plus. Pendant les deux premières années du conflit syrien, entre 2012 et 2014, les autorités libanaises ont laissé les organisations internationales livrer, seules, une aide d’urgence aux réfugiés. De plus, l’Unicef estime plus que 500 000 les enfants syriens à l’âge scolaire. Alors en décembre 2013, le gouvernement libanais a officiellement demandé de l’aide pour scolariser ces enfants dans les écoles publiques. Cette scolarisation et ce recours à l’éducation tombent-ils dans une politique d’inclusion étudiée et tablent-ils sur le bien-être social des réfugiés surtout que le Liban est reconnu pour sa bonne position mondiale au niveau de l’éducation ? Dans cette étude, nous allons essayer de répondre à la question de l’inclusion des réfugiés sur le plan de l’éducation et comment pourrait-on assurer une inclusion adéquate sur plusieurs plans pour les jeunes réfugiés dans le système éducatif ? Sur le plan politique, économique et social, le Liban a un rôle à jouer surtout quant aux causes et conséquences des réfugiés sur l’économie puisque l’exemple du Liban et l’historique des réfugiés au Liban sont très riches et variés. Nous proposons, à la fin de cette étude, la nécessité de recourir à des indicateurs d’évaluation de l’inclusion des déplacés ainsi que l’importance de l’innovation dans l’enseignement et le recours à la technologie favorisant l’inclusion, l’apprentissage, et l’adaptation des jeunes déplacés aux besoins du marché.

Les déplacés syriens et leur inclusion dans le système éducatif libanais, Al-Machriq Magazine, No. 97, Vol 1, Jan. 2023. ASIN ‏ : ‎ B0BSLNXZK5 https://bit.ly/nadamb-a03

Keywords: Réfugiés, inclusion, Liban, Syrie, éducation, les déplacés Syriens.

Investigation of the Level of Knowledge in Different Countries about Edible Insects: Cluster Segmentation

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge about edible insects (EIs) in a sample of people from thirteen countries (Croatia, Greece, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey). Data collection was based on a questionnaire survey applied through online tools between July and November 2021. For data analysis, techniques such as factor analysis, cluster analysis, and chi-square tests were used, with a significance level of 5%. A total of 27 items were used to measure knowledge on a five-point Likert scale. Applying factor analysis with principal components and Varimax rotation, a solution that explains about 55% of variance was obtained. This accounts for four factors that retained 22 of the 27 initial items: F1 = Sustainability (8 items), F2 = Nutrition (8 items), F3 = Production Factors (2 items), and F4 = Health Concerns (4 items). Internal consistency was evaluated through Cronbach’s alpha. The cluster analysis consisted of the application of hierarchical methods followed by k-means and produced three clusters (1—‘fearful’, 2—‘farming,’ and 3—‘ecological’ individuals). The characterisation of the clusters revealed that age did not influence cluster membership, while sex, education, country, living environment, professional area, and income all influenced the composition of the clusters. While participants from Mexico and Spain were fewer in the ‘fearful’ cluster, in those from Greece, Latvia, Lebanon, and Turkey, the situation was opposed. Participants from rural areas were mostly in cluster 2, which also included a higher percentage of participants with lower income. Participants from professional areas linked with biology, food, and nutrition were mostly in cluster 3. In this way, we concluded that the level of knowledge about EIs is highly variable according to the individual characteristics, namely that the social and cultural influences of the different countries lead to distinct levels of knowledge and interpretation of information, thus producing divergent approaches to the consumption of insects—some more reluctant and measuring possible risks. In contrast, others consider EIs a good and sustainable protein-food alternative.

Investigation of the Level of Knowledge in Different Countries about Edible Insects: Cluster Segmentation Sustainability, no. 1 (2023): 450, December 2022. 

DOI: 10.3390/su15010450

Keywords: knowledge, edible insects, factor analysis, cluster analysis, sustainable food, nutritional value

Getting Smarter: Blockchain and IOT Mixture in China Smart Public Services

Abstract: Due to the tremendous technological breakthroughs, an increasing number of cities are transforming into "smart cities" by utilizing the Internet of Things (IOT), artificial intelligence, or other information technologies. The Chinese government announced that the development of "digital cities smart cities" was a national priority. The goal of this study is to examine the success variables that can influence IOT service adoption aspirations while also serving as a mediator for enhanced security via Blockchain technologies. A conceptual model is created with a strong theoretical underpinning and body of literature. The final sample consisted of 1008 participants. This study uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM model) to test and to analyze the impact of identified variables on the continuous usage intention (CUI) of IOT-based public services. Our findings show that Blockchain adoption in smart cities fully mediates the effect of IOT on CUI and shed the light on the importance of the trust, empowerment and social since the continuous usage intention of IOT in Smart cities is mainly influenced by these factors and enhanced by the application of blockchain.

Getting Smarter: Blockchain and IOT Mixture in China Smart Public Services, Smart Cities, 2022, 5, 1811–1828. December 2022. 

DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040090

Keywords : blockchain, IOT service adoption, structural equation modeling, continuous usage intention.

Estudo Internacional do nível de conhecimento sobre insetos

Abstract: Introdução – O consumo de insetos é uma prática tradicional ao longo da história humana, mas o seu consumo é muito variável de acordo com a região do globo. Objetivos – Pretendeu-se investigar o nível de conhecimento sobre insetos comestíveis numa amostra de participantes de treze países. Métodos – Os dados foram recolhidos em 2021 por questionário online. Obtiveram-se 6899 respostas válidas. Para a análise dos dados usou-se análise fatorial, análise de clusters e testes qui-quadrado. Resultados – Foram usados 27 itens para medir o conhecimento, utilizando uma escala do tipo Likert de cinco pontos. Aplicando análise fatorial obteve-se uma solução que explica 55% da variância total observada. Esta inclui 4 fatores que retiveram 22 dos 27 itens iniciais: F1 = Sustentabilidade (8 it); F2 = Nutrição (8 it); F3 = Fatores de Produção (2 it); F4 = Preocupações com a Saúde (4 it). A análise de clusters produziu três grupos de participantes (indivíduos 'receosos', 'agricultores' e 'ecológicos'). A caracterização dos clusters revelou que a idade não influenciou a inclusão nos clusters, enquanto sexo, escolaridade, país, meio onde reside, área profissional e rendimento influenciaram a composição dos clusters. Conclusões – O nível de conhecimento sobre insetos comestíveis é altamente variável de acordo com as características individuais e localização geográfica. Por outro lado, a segmentação permitiu identificar 3 tipos de indivíduos, 'receosos', 'agricultores' e 'ecológicos'.

Estudo Internacional do nível de conhecimento sobre insetos IV CNESA – Congresso Nacional das Escolas Superiores Agrárias, November 2022. 

full text here 

Keywords : Insetos comestíveis, conhecimento, análise fatorial, análise de clusters, valor nutricional.

Towards a Single Currency in Natural Syria Region - A Conceptual Monetary Innovation: A Reflection

Abstract: This research paper studies the benefits and the feasibility of a Single Currency in the Natural Syria region. The economic crisis that heavily weighs on the countries of this region makes it primordial to join forces and converge resources, potentials, and opportunities to raise the standard of living. A monetary union with its single currency may hold structural remedies to the woes of this region whose ability to face its economic, political, and internal difficulties depends mainly on the logic of support and cooperation. Based on a conceptual model of a currency basket, taking into consideration specific economic and monetary criteria, this potential union is enhanced by a single currency establishment that must be a feature of economic and political relations between the countries of the region which achieve the supreme interest represented in eliminating cases of fragmentation and disintegration and ensuring a comfortable life for the citizen. Hereby, the implementation of a Single Currency in Natural Syria seems to be a real turning point.

Towards a Single Currency in Natural Syria Region - A Conceptual Monetary Innovation: A Reflection The Economic Research Guardian – Vol. 12(2)2022, November 2022. 

full text here ISSN: 2247-8531

Keywords :Single currency, Monetary Union, Production, Innovation, Financial Integration.

Are Consumers Aware of Sustainability Aspects Related to Edible Insects? Results from a Study Involving 14 Countries

Abstract: In recent years, edible insects have been suggested as an alternative food that is more sustainable compared with other sources of animal protein. However, knowledge about the sustainability aspects associated with this source of food may play a role in convincing consumers to adopt insects as part of their diet. In this context, the present study investigated the level of knowledge about the sustainability of edible insects in a group of people originating from 14 countries, with some naturally entomophagous and others not. To measure the knowledge, 11 items were selected and the scores obtained were tested with statistical tools (t-test for independent samples, analysis of variance—ANOVA) to search for differences according to sociodemographic and socioeco-nomic characteristics, geographical origin, and consumption habits of edible insects. The obtained results showed that, in general, knowledge is moderate, with the values of the average scores for the 11 items investigated ranging from 0.23 ± 0.99 to 0.66 ± 1.02, on a scale ranging from –2 (=very low knowledge) to 2 (=very high knowledge). The highest scores were found for items relating to the lower use of animal feed and lower emission of greenhouse gases required for the production of insects compared with beef. When investigating the differences between groups of participants, significant differences were generally found, revealing a trend for higher knowledge among males and young adults, for participants residing in urban areas and in countries such as Spain, Mexico, and Poland, and for participants with higher education levels and higher incomes. When testing the influence of consumption variables on the level of knowledge, the results showed a higher knowledge for participants who had already consumed insects or are willing to consume them. Finally, it was observed that higher knowledge was found for participants whose motivation to consume insects related to curiosity, a wish to preserve the planet, the gastronomic characteristics of insects, and their nutritional value. In conclusion, these results clearly indicate a very marked influence of a number of variables on the knowledge about the sustainability of edible insects, and this may be helpful to delineate strategies to effectively raise knowledge and eventually increase the willingness to consider insects as a more sustainable alternative to partially replace other protein foods, even in countries where this is a not a traditional practice.

Are Consumers Aware of Sustainability Aspects Related to   Edible Insects? Results from a Study Involving 14 Countries Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14125, October 2022. 

DOI: 10.3390/su142114125

Keywords: edible insects, minimize waste, sustainability, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables, country differences, motivation

Attitude towards Online Shopping during Pandemics: Do Gender, Social Factors and Platform Quality Matter?

Abstract: Because of the advancement of electronic commerce, online shopping has emerged, merging commercial and social activities and enhancing the social presence and value of the online environment. To improve the understanding of the changes in the consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study proposes a set of characteristics connected to the social side of online shopping and their influence on client purchasing attitude in addition to the quality of the platforms that are being used (service quality, system quality and information quality). For this matter, a survey of 289 Lebanese people was circulated in 2021 and a quantitative method was used to answer three research questions. Types of goods purchased and frequency of buying on-line were tested to check the presence of any gender differences, in addition to the relationship between the variables studied in the model. According to the research, social presence, social value, and tendency to compare products on different shopping platforms all have a significant correlation with the attitude towards online shopping, where the system quality was the least significant. When it comes to purchasing frequency and product types, the data gathered imply that gender disparities are considerable. This study does not consider the consumer’s living environment or whether there are any age differences between the generations shopping online.

Attitude towards Online Shopping during Pandemics: Do Gender, Social Factors and Platform Quality Matter? Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 15, 474, October 2022. 

DOI: 10.3390/jrfm15100474 


Keywords: attitude, consumer behavior, online shopping, pandemic, quality information, quality service, quality system, social presence, social value, tendency to compare.

Smart Insurance Contracts Shielding Pandemic Business Disruption in Developing Countries and Blockchain Solution

Abstract: As the Fourth Industrial Revolution gains momentum and involves a plethora of disruptive technology concepts, such as blockchain, they have infiltrated economies that have only experienced a small portion of their scope, consequences, and applications in their different branches. This research aims to examine the potential uses of blockchain technology within the framework of smart contracts in the insurance sector, notably in the event of a pandemic that results in business interruption. Businesses hardly ever take business interruption insurance into account, particularly in a country similar to Lebanon, where natural disasters and pandemics are scarce. Due to the complexity of the task and the numerous requirements for trust in terms of risk consistency, traditional insurance companies are not interested in offering these kinds of insurance contracts. In this current study, a quantitative study was conducted over 213 businesses in various fields and revealed acceptance and socio-demographic differences in the activity sectors of this potentially ground-breaking solution for a developing country that is undergoing a sanitary and economic crisis. As a result, smart contracts and decentralized finance (DeFi) were proposed in the current research as potential solutions to overcome the Lebanese currency devaluation and high insurance costs.

Smart Insurance Contracts Shielding Pandemic Business Disruption in Developing Countries and Blockchain Solution FinTech, 1(4), 294-309, October 2022. 

DOI: 10.3390/fintech1040022

Keywords: Blockchain, Business Interruption, Smart Contracts, Insurance, DeFi.

The International Research Project Eisufood - Edible Insects as Sustainable Foods

Abstract: In recent years, insects have been suggested as an alternative source of animal protein, and a more sustainable way to provide the needs in protein of the growing world population. Edible insects are nutritive foods, rich in macronutrients and particularly protein and fat, but also contain micronutrients important for many body functions, such as vitamins and dietary minerals. The project "EISuFood – Study about food habits and knowledge about edible insects as sustainable foods" is developed in different countries and aims to study the habits, knowledge, and perceptions of consumers in different social and cultural contexts to edible insects. The project was approved by the CERNAS-IPV Research Centre at the Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, in December 2020, and the Principal investigator and leader of the international team is Raquel Guiné. The project involves a total of 69 researchers in the 18 participating countries (Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, Croatia, Greece, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, with Portugal being the leader country). The project involves four tasks as follows: 1. Preparation of the instruments for data collection; 2. Collection of data in the 18 countries; 3. Analysis of the data; and 4. Preparation of scientific outputs and dissemination of results. The questionnaire used in the project addresses seven different dimensions: Culture and Tradition, Gastronomic Innovation and Gourmet Kitchen, Environment and Sustainability, Economic and Social Aspects, Commercialization and Marketing, Nutritional Aspects and, finally, Health Effects. The questionnaire was prepared by the whole international team and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Polytechnic of Viseu with Reference No. 45/SUB/2021. An initial screening involved the validation for the Portuguese sample1, before global application in all countries. The validation of this questionnaire confirms its usefulness for investigating consumer perceptions of and knowledge about edible insects, making possible its application in different countries.

The International Research Project Eisufood - Edible Insects as Sustainable Foods International Web Conference on Food Choice & Eating Motivation, Viseu, May 2022. 

full text here ISBN: 9789728765255

Keywords : edible insects, minimize waste, sustainability, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables, country differences, motivation

Strengthening Public Institutions and Social Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups in A Developing Country - Innovation in Organizations and Artificial Intelligence Implications

Abstract: In the context of a developing nation, children's participation in communal life is almost non-existent. The goal of the study is to contribute to national policies for local development that should prioritize the safety and well-being of the most vulnerable populations, particularly children under the age of 18. Innovating, including children in decision-making and maintaining local services in three pilot municipalities in order to prevent and combat all forms of exploitation to which they are exposed. How can Youth engagement in social and political community life be improved through better understanding of their needs and interests, and what are the artificial intelligence implications? The methodology was used and designed to re-validate an existing program using pre-defined components of an agreement between the Italian and Lebanese governments. A needs study on the socio-demographic profile of youth and a situational analysis was conducted answering three objectives in the program of the Child Friendly City initiative. Assuring the long-term viability and social inclusion of a significant socio-demographic group was successfully implemented: a free call center, software applications, a library, a digital network center, and the involvement of children on the municipal board of directors were established. The findings need to be adapted to various locations using artificial intelligence (AI) solutions and strategies for social awareness and behavior analysis. The importance of this study was underscored during the Covid-19 sanitary crisis, when some of these technologies enabled young people in impacted areas to integrate and become aware of the pandemic's risk. The case was based on theories such as Gender Inequalities and Children's Inclusion, Municipal Governance & Reform, Organizational Innovation (Public Sector), and Social Inclusion, and it demonstrates the value of innovating in the public sector and protecting vulnerable populations through the use of AI.

Strengthening Public Institutions and Social Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups in A Developing Country - Innovation in Organizations and Artificial Intelligence Implications Pacific Asia Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Volume 14, Issue 3, March 2022, (ABDC indexed, Scopus Indexed). 

DOI: 10.17705/1pais.14304

Keywords: Social inclusion, Innovation, Public Institution, Child Protection, Artificial Intelligence

Understanding the role of media and food labels to disseminate food related information in Lebanon

Abstract: Today’s consumers are becoming more aware of what they consume and the implications that a proper diet can have for their health. This work aimed to understand how Lebanese people get information about foods, and which communication media they consider most appropriate. Also the attitudes towards food labelling were assessed. This was a cross-sectional study undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey on a sample of 258 Lebanese participants. Data analysis used statistical tools such as T-test and ANOVA with post hoc to test possible group differences or Cronbach’s alpha to assess internal scale reliability. The results showed that radio was the first choice as a media tool used by Lebanese people for gathering food information (29.1%), followed by hospitals (23.3%), and the participants also considered that these are the most appropriate means to communicate information (28.3% and 22.5%, respectively). Today’s consumers are becoming more aware of what they consume and the implications that a proper diet can have for their health. This work aimed to understand how Lebanese people get information about foods, and which communication media they consider most appropriate. Also the attitudes towards food labelling were assessed. This was a cross-sectional study undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey on a sample of 258 Lebanese participants. Data analysis used statistical tools such as T-test and ANOVA with post hoc to test possible group differences or Cronbach’s alpha to assess internal scale reliability. The results showed that radio was the first choice as a media tool used by Lebanese people for gathering food information (29.1%), followed by hospitals (23.3%), and the participants also considered that these are the most appropriate means to communicate information (28.3% and 22.5%, respectively).

Understanding the role of media and food labels to disseminate food related information in Lebanon, Boustani, N. M.; Cardoso, A. P.; Guiné, R. P., Open Agriculture, Apr 2022. ( Scopus Indexed).

DOI: 10.1515/opag-2022-0068

Keywords: food label, mass media, nutritional information; attitudes, questionnaire survey

La Finance décentralisée et ses solutions mondiales innovantes  - Le Secteur de l'assurance et l’interruption des activités pendant la pandémie du Covid-19

Abstract: La popularité croissante de la «Blockchain» a ouvert la voie au développement de nombreuses applications financières décentrali- sées. Cependant, les solutions d'assurance font toujours défaut et, de plus, l'importance de ces assurances en cas d'interruption d'activité est cruciale pour la survie des entreprises. Cet article présente donc l'impact de COVID-19 sur les entre- prises et sur le secteur de l'assurance, dans lequel les PME ont perdu des milliards de dollars par mois et que plus de 44 millions de travail- leurs sont déjà licenciés. Lorsque ces compagnies ont exigé des com- pagnies d'assurance qu’elles compensent leurs pertes d'exploitation au titre de la police, ces dernières ont rejeté leurs demandes. L'indus- trie de l'assurance a également annoncé que la police d'interruption d'activité ne couvre pas les pertes liées à la pandémie. Nous essayons de pointer l'importance d'un système d'assurance décentralisé en réduisant le nombre d'intermédiaires. L'évaluation de l'artefact montre que la «Blockchain» et les «contrats smart» peuvent permettre l'inclusion financière, la réduction des coûts et l'automa- tisation des processus d'assurance. Pour cette question, une étude quantitative a été menée sur un échantillon de 198 participants où phusieurs tests statistiques ont montré que les Libanais de différents secteurs économiques sont intéressés par de nouveaux contrats d'as- surance basés sur Blockchain et couvrant leur risque d'interruption d'activité en période de pandémie.

La Finance décentralisée et ses solutions mondiales innovantes  - Le Secteur de l'assurance et l’interruption des activités pendant la pandémie du Covid-19, Al-Machriq Magazine, No. 96, Vol 1, Jan. 2022. ASIN ‏ : ‎ B0B3RP2W6Y https://amzn.to/3VnNQBU

Keywords: Blockchain, décentralisation financière, interruption d’activité, assurance, Covid 19

Food consumption knowledge and habits in a developing country: a case of Lebanon

Abstract: This research work investigated the Lebanese consumers’ knowledge about food fibre and their food habits according to age groups and gender. The study was conducted from January 2021 till end of March 2021. Due to the pandemic of Covid-19 and the lockdown, the questionnaire was administered randomly through social media. The survey consisted of a longitudinal study carried out on a non-probabilistic convenience sample of 258 Lebanese participants. The responses were used to undertake a quantitative, descriptive and analytical study. The questionnaires received and considered valid, were mostly from women (59.7%) and essentially living in an urban environment (78.3%). To analyse the data, basic descriptive statistics were considered on a first level. Additionally, statistical tests were also carried out (Student t test for comparisons between two groups). Finally, results and analysis were done to evaluate the importance of food knowledge among these people in addition to their eating habits and the possible gender differences. The results revealed that there are some gender inequalities (F=6.238, α= 0.0013) in terms of knowledge about food fibre, but no living environment differences were found (F=0.36, α=0.85). Additionally, consumption habits showed major differences between female and male food behaviour, especially when it comes to eating: the frequency of eating outside from home, eating fast food and consuming fruits. The value of this study focuses on the food knowledge and habits in Lebanon, specifically in a country defined by a multi-ethnical diversity and religiosity and where food habits were mainly related to social behaviour. Therefore, this study adds more knowledge about these people’s food behaviour and valuable information about specific food attitudes.

Food consumption knowledge and habits in a developing country: a case of Lebanon, Boustani, N. M.; Ferreira, M.; Guiné, R. P., Insights into Regional Development 3(4): 62-79.  Dec, 2021. (Indexed in Web of Science- CrossRef).

DOI: 10.9770/IRD.2021.3.4(5)

Keywords: Lebanese consumers, social behaviour, eating habits, food knowledge, fast food, food fibre

Les effets de la technologie et de la digitalisation sur la satisfaction des clients des institutions financières

Abstract: This article briefly discusses the topic of digitization in the banking industry, consumer behavior when purchasing financial services and the importance of digitization for the delivery of customer services. In this research work the authors focused on the theories of consumer behavior, digitization as a financial innovation in order to answer the following problem: Does digitization satisfy the customers of financial institutions and would it replace one day the employees in their work and the services rendered? In order to collect and analyze the data, a questionnaire was sent to the clients of several Lebanese commercial banks, a quantitative methodology is used to process and analyze the responses through the IBM SPSS version 24 software. Finally, from the results, the researchers can conclude that customers are encouraged to use digitization especially in times of crisis or when there is no access to financial institutions, as is currently the case in lockdowns due to the pandemic such as Covid-19 but still prefer human contact in ordinary moments for greater interaction with the customer advisor.

Les effets de la technologie et de la digitalisation sur la satisfaction des clients des institutions financières, Journal of Contemporary Research in Business Administration and Economic Sciences, Sep. 2021. (DRJI, Crossref Indexed). 

DOI: 10.52856/jcr311280125

Keywords: Digitalization; Financial Innovation; Consumer Behavior; Financial Institutions

E-learning: Factors Affecting Students Online Learning During COVID-19 Quarantine in a Developing Country

Abstract: In response to the impending spread of COVID-19, universities worldwide switched to digital learning. They switched to online platforms using technology in their learning processes. In this context, an online survey study was conducted in Saint Joseph University, Faculty of Business in which the authors collected 458 responses from students during the spring-summer 2020 semester. The quantitative study focused on (1) the students’ access to technology, (2) the facilitating conditions offered by the university during the semester (3) the learning value acquired from the online teaching and (4) the demographics characteristics as gender and level of education. The researchers tested the relationship between those variables and the intention to use e-learning and to continue using it after the pandemic crisis. In this paper, the authors present and discuss their study’s results, where no gender differences were noted but a disparity in the level of education led to acceptance or rejection of future use of e-learning; moreover, the access to technology raised a major problem specially in the case of a developing country.

E-learning: Factors Affecting Students Online Learning During COVID-19 Quarantine in a Developing Country, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Aug. 2021. (Scopus Indexed). 

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-85977-0_2

Keywords: COVID-19; e-Learning; Access to technology; Learning value

La connaissance alimentaire au pays des cèdres

Abstract: Cette étude montre la conscience des libanais en ce qui concerne le concept de la bonne nutrition, ainsi que les motifs qui les poussent à la favoriser, dépendamment de leurs différents âges. Les deux auteures de l’article ont pu comparer les résultats de cette étude à ceux d’autres similaires faites dans d’autres pays souffrant de crises économiques et sociales. L’étude en question porta sur 410 personnes dont les résultats de leurs questionnaires furent considérés valides. Puis l’on eut recours aux statistiques descriptives basiques pour réaliser les analyses, et ceci fut suivi de tests statistiques: T-test pour comparer deux groupes, et Anova-test pour comparer trois groupes et au-delà. Cette étude montre aussi l’importance des marges statistiques au niveau des motifs politiques - écologiques, ainsi que de la différence d’âge qui joua un rôle primordial à ce sujet. Tout ceci poussera les deux auteures de l’article à réaliser d’autres études ultérieures qui donneront naissance à des recherches approfondies en la matière, sachant que les données et critères économiques ne manqueront pas d’influencer le consommateur; celui-ci pourrait négliger la dimension écologique au moment de choisir ses ressources nutritives.

La connaissance alimentaire au pays des cèdres, Al-Machriq Magazine, No. 95, Vol 2, July 2021. ASIN : B0BCKFBN5W https://amzn.to/3CrSS7T

Keywords: Liban, sociologie, comportements alimentaires au Liban, différences d’âge, motifs alimentaires, pays en voie de développement, conscience écologique, bonne nutrition, écologie. 

Artificial intelligence impact on banks clients and employees in an Asian developing country

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in banking sector, its impact on banks employees and consumer behavior alike when buying financial services and the importance of (AI) for delivering social services in a western Asian developing country: Lebanon. The author tried to respond to the following problematics: Would AI be able to replace man power in customer service? and would AI change the job of the banker and render the bank more profitable?

Artificial intelligence impact on banks clients and employees in an Asian developing country Journal of Asia Business Studies, Emerald Insight June 2021, (Scopus Indexed). 

DOI: 10.1108/JABS-09-2020-0376

Keywords: Consumer behavior; Employability; Artificial intelligence

Food Choice Motivation And Perception Of A Healthy Diet In A Developing Mediterranean Country

Abstract: This study investigated the Lebanese consumers’ knowledge about healthy food perception and their food motivations according to gender and also to environmental, social, and health behaviors. The survey consisted of a longitudinal study undertaken on a sample of 450 participants from which only 410 questionnaires were considered to be valid. For the analysis of the data, basic descriptive statistics were used, complemented with statistical tests (Student t-test for comparisons between two groups and ANOVA for comparisons between three or more groups). Finally, analyses were done to evaluate the importance of healthy food perception among these people, and the possible sociodemographic variables are as follows: age group, level of education, gender, and living environment. The results allowed identifying which types of factors mostly influence people's food choices. They revealed that both the economic and availability motivations (mean scores 2.83 and 2.98 for female and male participants, respectively) and the social and cultural motivations (mean scores 2.90 and 3.09) have less impact on the perception of a healthy diet than the healthy motivations (mean scores 3.48 and 3.29) and the environmental and political motivations (mean scores 3.35 and 3.43), this last being also the highest expression and without statistical gender differences. This work is relevant because it highlights the food motivation factors that influence people’s perception about a healthy diet in a developing country, facing social and economic crisis in addition to many gender inequalities, yet having the highest education levels in the region in addition to its multiethnical diversity and religiosity.

Food Choice Motivation And Perception Of A Healthy Diet In A Developing Mediterranean Country, Open Agriculture Journal,  De Gruyter, Sep. 2020. (Scopus Indexed).

DOI: 10.1515/opag-2020-0048

Keywords: Lebanese consumers; Healthy food perception; Food motivation

Traditional Banks and Fintech : Survival, Future And Threats, BEST PAPER AWARD

Abstract: The FinTech(s) is an economic sector involving a number of enterprises that use technology to offer more efficient financial services. These startups disrupt the classical financial system namely commercial banks by modifying the payments and debts mechanism. Their technology offers opportunities in terms of enhancing the current financial services and widening the consumers’ choices. In this paper, the author assesses the different conditions and requirements for the survival of the banking sector amidst the emergence of the Fintech startups worldwide and specifically in Lebanon. In this paper, the author explains the emergence and positioning of Fintech firms before developing a research model for this end. The model shall be based on the behavioral and innovation theories in finance, will be tested on site using structured interviews with banking specialists and officials, and will finally quantitatively be analyzed for research purposes.

Traditional Banks and Fintech : Survival, Future And Threats, BEST PAPER AWARD, ICT for an inclusive World LNISO, Springer 2020. (Scopus Indexed).

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-34269-2_24

Keywords: Fintechs; Financial innovation; Banks; Technology 

Innovation, New Public Management And Digital Era Government, Towards A Better Public Sector Performance Through ICT: The Case Of The Lebanese Ministry Of Environment

Abstract: The public sector, especially in developing countries, is encountering several problems in general and is crippled by the lack of government intervention; hence a grown awareness about the role of the public sector in gaining capacity to innovate, as innovation is a dynamic and iterative process, which includes the implementation of new ideas or approaches. In view of the challenging context, this paper assesses the needs in terms of research namely in the field of innovation in the public sector in Lebanon, especially in the Ministry of Environment; it examines the existing literature and theory regarding innovation while focusing on the new public management, the new era government, ICT and innovation theories. Using a qualitative approach, this paper reveals the actions currently undertaken by the Lebanese Government to innovate in public services using ICT which can set the scene for a better public sector performance.

Innovation, New Public Management And Digital Era Government, Towards A Better Public Sector Performance Through ICT: The Case Of The Lebanese Ministry Of Environment, ICT for a better life and a better world ,Springer, Mar. 2019. (Scopus Indexed). 

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10737-6_12

Keywords: Innovation theory; New public management; Digital Era Governance; ICT Public sector; Ministry of environment 

Impact of the application of international accounting and financial reporting standards on the audit profession

Abstract: The introduction of the international accounting and financial reporting standards made the practice of auditors and accountants more difficult requiring from them more time to understand and apply appropriately. However, those standards ameliorated the quality of financial statements and audit reports, because they permitted auditors to communicate more transparent information. In fact, those standards demand from auditors to develop their reports in a very systematic manner to reduce financial informational controversies and confusion between management and shareholders. Moreover, auditors should come up with an approach to, simultaneously use local and international standards in compliance with national and international requirements at the same time. Innovations in technology and especially in financial ones through the development of advanced financial & audit management information systems, played an important role in the advancement of the audit profession and hence in the facilitation of application of the international standards. This paper will put light on different theories that are major subject matters of our research and shall be backed up with a field study for further examinations. Researchers shall expose not only the opinion of some auditors that are active in the Lebanese market, but also handle multinationals present locally that require the adoption of the international standards for the audit and for the preparation of their financial statements. 

Impact of the application of international accounting and financial reporting standards on the audit profession, international conference NCM 13th edition. Dubai 2019. (conference proceedings CIKD).

link to the conference proceedings

Keywords: International Accounting Standards, Financial Reporting, Audit Profession, Innovation 

Impact Of Innovation On Master Programs In Business Schools

Abstract: Many changes occurred in the organizations and their requirement for human resources qualifications and types of jobs due to evolution of technologies and ICT. How could universities respond to new labor market needs? Should Master programs in Business Schools- focus on personal development of students rather than technical and traditional learning? This has led to a growing awareness that higher education must increase its ability to innovate, recognizing that innovation is a dynamic and iterative process, which includes the implementation of a new idea or approach to an issue. Innovative methods allow students to upgrade their practical skills and reduce the number of mistakes they could potentially make in their future job.  Within this challenging context, nowadays and due to economic crisis and the higher level of technologies, the issues of employment security and stability of the job market are more pressing and it is time to consider what higher education systems and institutions can do to redesign their curriculum according to the job market and the student’s work expectations.  This paper assesses research needs and importance in the area of innovation in the curricula of Business School degrees in a developing country; it examines the existing literature and theory regarding innovation focusing on employability and education theories and innovation theories (radical innovation). Using a qualitative approach, this paper proposes actions to be taken in the coming years by higher education institutions in order to perform better maintain their mission on innovation in education and reach their goals.

Impact Of Innovation On Master Programs In Business Schools, presented in INTED conference, Valencia - Spain 2017. (Indexed in Web of Science). 

DOI: 10.21125/inted.2017.0405 

Keywords:  Innovation theory; Education theory; Employability; Master programs; Skills and job market

Innovation In Organizations Having Founder Syndrome

Abstract: The founder’s syndrome is considered a management weakness and leadership disorder affecting every entrepreneur envisioning and planning a long-term journey for his/her established business. The challenge, with expanding companies, is that the bigger they become, the more re-organization they require through re-design, processes re-engineering, restructuring, reforming corporate governance structure and more innovation plans and strategies they would need to withhold the complexities and uncertainties of their external environments they are exposed to. Therefore, re-organizing growing businesses can become very difficult if the decision-making process remains caught at the upper level of hierarchy. The major risk factor in a business-growing journey is to be confronted with the founder’s syndrome.  A growing company led by an entrepreneur suffering from the founder’s syndrome who is afraid to let go and resist organizational re-alignment, development of strategies and introduction of advanced management systems, can never survive the complex external environmental challenges due to the excessive lack of innovation. Business innovation in complex and uncertain environments requires innovative strategy setting which, if applied, should be complemented by a re-organizational structure and design compatible with the roadmap of strategy innovation. In fact, to support and stand for innovation, the business corporate leadership culture should not be contaminated with the effect of founder’s syndrome. On the contrary, the founder should have enough creativity and empowerment skills to accept the compromise of power and control with more open communication and information sharing combined with lean organizational design, to facilitate and encourage innovation for an extended long-term organizational survival.

Innovation In Organizations Having Founder Syndrome, in collaboration with Dr. Zaher Boustany, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Sep. 2017.  (Scopus Indexed). 

DOI: 10.21511/ppm.15(si).2017.05

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation theory; Founder’s syndrome

Articles published in Saint Joseph University publication - peer reviewed.

La synodalité dans le contexte libanais  - POC 2022.

Abstract: A réfléchir sur la synodalité telle qu'elle pourrait être vécue au Liban, on ne peut que s'interroger sur l'impact du système politique et de la tradition théologique du pays sur la manière dont ce « cheminement ensemble » pourrait être mis en œuvre dans le domaine de la pastorale. Le contexte libanais, dans toute sa complexité, a permis à l'Église catholique d’y adopter de nombreuses méthodes pour vivre la synodalité. Les Libanais ont plus que jamais besoin d'être écoutés. Les évêques et les prêtres doivent prêter plus d'attention aux besoins de leur peuple et plus particulièrement ceux des personnes en souffrance, afin d’aider les fidèles à mieux discerner le mouvement de l'Esprit Saint. Quelques suggestions ont été avancées par l’auteure pour répondre a la problématique de l’accès a la citoyenneté par une ouverture de la synodalite vers une fraternité humaine. L'Église ne peut pas être rigide dans sa configuration hiérarchique et organisationnelle, car chaque diocèse et paroisse doivent unir leurs forces dans les difficultés et trouver ensemble le chemin de la croix à la joie de la résurrection. Le principal défi au Liban est de trouver des processus participatifs qui favorisent l'écoute mutuelle et le discernement en commun que ce soit au niveau religieux ou communautaire ; pour ce faire, il faut penser à un encadrement plus engagé des femmes, des jeunes et de groupes marginalisés dans les communes, municipalités pour favoriser la connaissance de l’autre et l’éducation à l’ouverture, au dialogue mutuel.  La promotion d'une diversité dans les engagements et le choix des ministres aux postes de responsabilité, ainsi que l’ouverture à la diversité de profils au sein des conseils diocésains, sont autant de décisions courageuses qui portent leurs fruits aujourd'hui et promettent l’avènement d’une Église qui, à l'instar du Christ, risque de nouveaux chemins pour rester audible et crédible dans le monde d'aujourd'hui. 

La synodalité dans le contexte libanais,  Proche-Orient Chrétien,  No. 71, May 2022.

Read the Article here

Keywords: Synodalité, Citoyenneté, Fraternité, Religion, Liban, Église

L’éducation ignacienne en temps de crises et de défis - Editorial colloque 2021.

Abstract: L’un des événements marquants de l’année ignatienne au sein de l’université Saint Joseph (USJ) fut la réalisation du colloque sur « l’éducation ignacienne en temps de crises et de défis » qui a regroupé plusieurs interventions et questionnements sur des thématiques touchant l’éducation ignatienne, réparties en trois axes principaux (théorique, pratique et contextuel). Dans un objectif commun d’une conversion continue et d’une relecture éducative, ensemble et pendant deux jours une réflexion autour des questions : Qu’avons-nous fait jusque-là ? Que sommes-nous en train de faire ? Et comment continuer de le faire, le mieux possible au sein de toutes les crises qui nous entourent ?  L’éducation jésuite a toujours visé et ciblera continuellement la formation des hommes et des femmes conscients, compatissants, engagés et compétents. L’excellence académique de l’USJ permet d’accomplir l’un de ses rôles sociaux fondamentaux et lui permet de même d’entrer en dialogue puisque « la conversion se fait toujours en dialogue, en dialogue avec Dieu, en dialogue avec les autres, en dialogue avec le monde » en plus d’une éducation de qualité. En réponse à la deuxième Préférence Apostolique Universelle, qui consiste à faire route avec les pauvres et les exclus, et la promotion de la justice sociale et en vue du changement des structures économiques, politiques et sociales qui génèrent l’injustice. Les personnes qui ont été transformées par le « Magis » dans leur vie s'efforceront de s'améliorer dans tout ce qu'elles entreprennent, en discernant « davantage » la décision appropriée qui sert le mieux, Dieu et les autres « davantage à la fin pour laquelle nous sommes créés. ». Nos talents, capacités, attributs physiques, personnalités, désirs, cœurs, foi et esprits sont tous aussi dignes de soins et d'attention « Cura Personalis ».   L'identification des passions et le perfectionnement des compétences sont les premières étapes pour faire une différence significative et durable. Nous pensons qu'apprendre et diriger sont les deux faces d'une même pièce transformatrice. Les élèves explorent avec audace leur potentiel futur. Notre enseignement répond ensuite à ce défi grâce à des milliers de possibilités de stages rémunérés, des liens exceptionnels avec les principaux réseaux d'emploi, des conférenciers de renommée mondiale et des possibilités innombrables de bénévolat au sein de l’USJ. Après tout, nous ne nous contentons pas d'éduquer. Nous formons et éduquons des agents de changement. Nous aidons à transformer les objectifs et les projets des étudiants en une différence positive dans le monde entier

- Editorial,  Colloque L’éducation ignacienne en temps de crises et de défis, Mars 2022.

Pour consulter l'editorial du colloque publiée le 19 Mars 2022, consultez


Keywords: année ignatienne, éducation ignacienne, formation jésuite, université Saint Joseph, Magis, Cura Personalis

The impact of MIS in organizations with founders’ syndrome - POEM 2017.

Abstract: Founders syndrome is a management weakness and illness confronted by every entrepreneur envisioning and planning for a long term journey of his business. With success, businesses grow from startups to SMEs' until they become solid corporations. From start up to SME stage, entrepreneurs roll their sleeves and implicate themselves in every single aspect of the business, because during those stages, the firms require entrepreneurships and general management and administrative skills. When the business grows further and the firm moves from SME to larger scale, it requires organizational reforms and restructuring. At this stage, the entity has a hunger to functional expertise, quality engineered processes, clear organization structure, appropriate span of control, structured authority matrix and quality governance charter and code. Therefore, entrepreneurs with founders' syndromes hurt much their organizations at growth because while their entities seek organizational structure, management development and processed information flow, they keep on treating their entity in a chaotic manner while rolling into small and big affairs at the same time. That type of entrepreneurs, if they are at least convinced to introduce Management Information Systems to automate their businesses and enhance information flow and knowledge transfer among entity's department and divisions, they could partially save their firms from mismanagement and potential ruin.

The Impact of MIS in Organizations With Founders Syndrome, Proche-Orient Études en Management, 2017.

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Keywords: Founders syndrome , management information system , organization excellence.

La Volatilité du Prix du Pétrole et ses Conséquences sur les Pays Exportateurs - POEM 2016

Abstract: Depuis 1861, les prix du pétrole ont toujours été très volatils. L’histoire de l’industrie pétrolière était marquée par plusieurs crises ou « chocs pétroliers » dont la dernière chute des prix de pétrole en 2014 ; dûe à la révolution du pétrole de schiste aux Etats-Unis d’une part et l’adoption de l’Arabie Saoudite à la tête de l’Organisation des Pays Exportateurs de Pétrole (OPEP) d’une politique de baisse volontaire d’autre part, cette baisse s’est aggravée par la levée des sanctions contre l’Iran tout en formant un choc pétrolier qui a pénalisé les pays exportateurs durant deux années consécutives et induit à une restructuration du marché pétrolier. Ces fluctuations des prix de pétrole mettent en relief d’importants changements structuraux au niveau de la conjoncture économique des marchés pétroliers mondiaux : inflation, déflation, dérèglement des soldes courants, déstabilisation des soldes budgétaires, transferts de revenus, etc. sont les conséquences de cette volatilité des prix du pétrole. Une analyse de la vulnérabilité et du prix d’équilibre budgétaire des économies des pays exportateurs sur le produit pétrolier permet de mieux cerner la chute récente des prix du baril qui a commencé en 2014 et met en évidence le pouvoir des plus grands acteurs du marché pétrolier (Etats Unis, Russie et l’OPEP). En effet, les répercussions de ce choc ont largement influencé les pays exportateurs du pétrole les plus vulnérables surtout au niveau de leur prix d’équilibre budgétaire. Pour remédier à ses effets des accords historiques ont été conclus fin 2016 entre les pays membre de l’OPEP et entre ces derniers et onze des pays exportateurs non OPEP pour mettre fin à cette crise.


La Volatilité du Prix du Pétrole et ses Conséquences sur les Pays Exportateurs, Proche-Orient Études en Management, 2016.

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Keywords: Prix de Pétrole – OPEP – Pays exportateurs – Conjoncture économique.

L’essoufflement des BRIC : causes et conséquences - POEM 2015.

Abstract: Après une décennie de forte croissance économique durant les années 2000, les BRIC font face à de nouveaux défis qui remettent en question la soutenabilité à long terme de leur expansion. En effet, le nivellement de l'écart qui les sépare des pays avancés suscite une controverse autour de leur positionnement à l'avenir dans l'économie mondiale. Au vu des perfectionnements structurels entrepris récemment par les gouvernements de ces pays pour la construction de modèles de croissance durable, les BRIC pourront-ils dépasser les barrières qui entravent leur passage d'une phase d'expansion économique à une phase de maturité ? Ont-ils encore le potentiel de s'affirmer sur les marchés mondiaux ? L'objectif de cet article est de proposer des éléments de réponse à ces questions qui alimentent le débat autour de la performance économique des BRIC dans le futur. Pour ce, il s'agira d'analyser les causes conjoncturelles et structurelles du ralentissement dont souffrent ces économies depuis 2010 et d'en étudier les conséquences après avoir survolé les agrégats économiques actuels de ces pays.

L’essoufflement des BRIC : causes et conséquences, Proche-Orient Études en Management, 2015.

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Keywords: BRIC, ralentissement économique, PIB par habitant, taux de chômage, taux d'inflation, importations et exportations, IPC

La crise actuelle de l’Euro - POEM 2013.

Abstract: Les idées maîtresses de cet article se résument principalement au traitement du problème de manque de confiance dans le système économique européen d'autant plus que l'effet de contagion a mené beaucoup de pays à faire face à des problèmes financiers et économiques en commençant par le Portugal, l'Espagne, l'Italie, la Grèce et plus récemment Chypre. De plus, on traitera la notion de gouvernance économique et l'obligation de contrôle et de surveillance par le CERS et le SESF dans les 27 pays membres de l'Union Européenne afin d'éviter la répétition du scenario grec. Notre problématique étant axée principalement sur l'avenir de l'Euro et les multitudes de crises. Cet article vient étayer notre idée de base en traitant en particulier des points concernant la crise actuelle de l'Euro : est-elle une crise financière, une crise économique, une crise des finances publiques, une crise monétaire ? Est-ce qu'elle est en train de remettre en question l'avenir de l'Euro et la confiance en l'Europe ? La crise italienne, la crise grecque posent-elles le problème particulier de la gouvernance économique et de la forme politique de l'Union Européenne ?

La crise actuelle de l’Euro, Proche-Orient Études en Management, 2013.

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La faisabilité des projets d’infrastructure routière au Liban et le partenariat public privé - POEM 2011.

Abstract: Cet article fournit une réflexion qualifiée sur la faiblesse du secteur des projets d'infrastructure et les tendances au Liban, un pays qui a fait face à une guerre civile de trente ans dans le passé, entraînant une abolition majeure de ses secteurs macroéconomiques et une escalade drastique de ses dettes internes et externes. Le développement du secteur des infrastructures au Liban a été jugé faible. Ce secteur a souffert d'un manque de financement, d'un coût au kilomètre trop élevé lors de l'exécution et d'une corruption agressive en première ligne. L'enregistrement d'un écart constant entre les recettes et les dépenses publiques a obligé, au fil des ans, le budget législatif à enregistrer un déficit continu. Une partie des dettes acquises a été utilisée à mauvais escient dans des projets d'infrastructure routière. La plupart de ces investissements n'ont pas atteint leur objectif d'atténuation du développement en raison d'études de faisabilité imprécises, d'un environnement public corrompu et de retards dans les paiements aux entrepreneurs, le tout compromettant la qualité des livrables des projets et les risques financiers des entrepreneurs. Par conséquent, une formule de partenariat public-privé est considérée comme une stratégie efficace pour réduire et améliorer l'état du secteur des infrastructures routières au Liban. La première partie de cette thèse est une recherche qualitative exposant les multiples stratégies de développement économique, avec un accent sur le secteur du développement des transports, qui ont été exécutées par le gouvernement libanais. Dans la deuxième partie, la recherche se concentre davantage sur l'évaluation des différentes théories et pratiques financières utilisées, par les institutions publiques, dans l'analyse financière des projets d'infrastructure de transport, avec une élaboration complète des méthodologies pour le développement d'un document d'évaluation de projet approprié (business plan) pour les projets d'infrastructure. La troisième partie se concentre sur l'analyse des facteurs de coûts multiples liés aux projets de transport terrestre, avec une évaluation complète de l'étude de faisabilité financière d'une route importante dans le sud du Liban, et la proposition d'adoption de projets de partenariat public-privé (PPP). La conclusion a été prévue pour conclure la thèse et identifier l'espoir pour l'avenir du Liban.


La faisabilité des projets d’infrastructure routière au Liban et le partenariat public privé, Proche-Orient Études en Management, 2011.

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 Crises financières internationales : les SUBPRIMES - POEM 2008.

Abstract: En économie, le krach est « une situation de crise financière affectant les marchés boursiers, qui se traduit par une chute soudaine et aigue du prix des actions, une restriction de crédit, et une baisse des prix des biens mobiliers . Les paniques financières sont souvent le résultat d'une croissance exagérée des préts bancaires, d'un excès des crédits commerciaux, d'une spéculation généralisée, ou d'une politique fiscale imprudente conduite par un gouvernement donné. Notre présent travail traite de la crise immobilière actuelle des prêts hypothácaires à risque « les subprimes qui a démarré aux États-Unis en soulevant plusieurs questions et conséquences. Nous développerons à cet égard les effets de cette crise immobilière américaine et de ses conséquences sur les marchés européens et asiatiques ainsi que sur l'efficience des marchés financiers. Nous mettrons de même en relief l'effet de contagion que fait subir cette crise à d'autres secteurs que l'immobilier ? Depuis 1973, le nombre de crises au niveau des marchés financiers modernes ne fait qu'augmenter. Si une crise financière ne concerne dans un premier temps que les marchés financiers, son aggravation conduira à des effets néfastes sur toute l'économie, entrainant ainsi une crise économique. Le tableau présenté en annexe récapitule rapidement les dates, les marchés, et les conséquences des crises financières les plus marquantes.

Crises financières internationales : les SUBPRIMES, Proche-Orient Études en Management, 2008.

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